Wednesday, December 11, 2019
CRU Computer Rentals is a national computer rental company that has seen rapid growth since its inception in 1990. The company purchases computers, printers, monitors, and other peripherals and rents them out both for the long term and short term. CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s sales have begun to increase from the previous quarter, but profitability continued to decline. Although revenue was increasing, the decline in profit warranted further investigation into the root problem causing this occurrence. CRU management needed to take corrective measures to reverse this trend and generate some alternatives that would lead to an increase in profitability. Most of CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s customers fit into one of three profiles, which differed mainly on the term of the lease. Large corporations replaced their computers every year to stay on the cutting edge of technology, thus leasing computers for a term of one year. Consulting firms and small businesses leased computers for two to four months at a time. We will write a custom essay sample on CRU Computer Rental or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lastly, trade show participants rented very short term, typically for the duration of the show. Although CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs for the length of a rental differed, they all expected short lead times, usually one to two days, and quick, accurate delivery and installation of products. CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory consisted of older model equipment and newer model equipment that they purchased, usually at the request of a client. Since technology in this industry changes rapidly, the demand and prices for older model equipment decline quickly. This leads CRU to sell their old equipment in the open market for their used machines and purchase newer models from the money generated. CRU fortunately has been able to recover book value on these older products in the past. CRU has two main warehouses, Ã¢â¬Å"Mega CentersÃ¢â¬ , located in Illinois and California and 23 local retail centers across the United States. All equipment at these locations are available to rent, with 90 percent of their inventory held at one of the main warehouses. When customers returned equipment, all of it was sent to a Mega Center to be repaired and/or reconfigured. The flow of orders and equipment through the CRU system was as follows (see appendix for flow chart). A customer initially makes a call to a CRU rental number to make an order. The call is routed to a sales specialist or to one of the Mega Centers. The sales specialist takes the order after verifies the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s credit information. Then he/she changes the status for the ordered equipment from Available for Rent (status 20) to Reserve Status (Status 32). After the order was entered into the system, it was routed to quality assurance and picking where the order would print out automatically. This printed order contained the details of the order and any special instructions. An employee would then review the order, locate the items ordered, and deliver the units to a holding area in configuration. Technicians then picked up the orders from this holding area to repair and/or reconfigure them. Once the technician was done, he/she would roll the order on a cart to the shipping department. An employee in the shipping department then reviewed the order, packaged it, and shipped it out. CRU covered the cost of shipping to customers, which averaged $25 per unit. Once the rental term was complete, the customer would ship the item back to one of the Mega Centers with prepaid postage paid for by CRU, which again had an average cost of $25 per unit. All items received back from customers at a Mega Center in the receiving department were classified as either defective (Status 40) or not defective (Status 24). Status 24 units were put into storage to be worked on by the pre-configuration department and status 40 units were put into storage to be worked on by the repairs group. Normally 30% of the items received would go to the repair group and 70% would go to the pre-configuration department. A technician in the pre-configuration department would pick the item from storage to be worked on and inspect it again to confirm that it did not need to be repaired; however, 15% of these units did indeed turn out to be defective and required repair. The technician would re-label these items as status 40 and put them back into storage. If the item only needed reconfiguration, the technician would work on the item and then put it back into storage as status 20, available for rent. The cost of converting an item from status 24 to status 20 was $4. Technicians in the repair group would check an item from storage and determine what needed to be replaced. They would fill out an order sheet for parts needed to repair the item and send it to the parts department. The item would then be classified as status 41 and sent to storage. Once the parts department received the items they ordered from suppliers, they would tape the parts to the machine in need of repair, reclassify the item as status 42, and put it into storage. A technician would then take the item from storage again, repair it, and label the item status 20, available for rent. The average parts cost of repairing a unit was $150, which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t include any labor costs. CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s key performance measure was Ã¢â¬Å"utilizationÃ¢â¬ . Utilization was measured by CRU as follows: Utilization = Inventory on Rent Total Inventory owned by CRU Management always aimed to keep utilization above 50% and CRU achieved an utilization rate of 56% last year(see Appendix for Calculation). Although revenues and utilization had increased from the previous year and were considered to be at reasonable levels by management, CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s profit continued to decline. It was managements goal to find solutions to this phenomenon and to increase profits. CRU questioned whether utilization was a good measure of future financial performance or if there were other measures that may be more appropriate to predict future profitability. In order to perform value stream mapping, which enable CRU to focus on process improvement, that is time spent by each unit in the buffer is calculated . Flow rate of the unit in each buffer is calculated using LittleÃ¢â¬â¢s law. LittleÃ¢â¬â¢s law can be stated as I=RT Average Flow rate is calculated as shown in Table 2 (Refer Appendix) The average weekly profit of CRU last year is calculated. From the calculations it is seen that CRU got a weekly revenue of $240,000 and had incurred an expense of $113,130. So they had a net profit of $126,870. Depriciation cost of units per week is calculated as $92340 . So operating expense can be calculated as $34520. From the results it is observed that contribution margin is greater than operating expense. (Refer Appendix for Calculation) We have determined that CRU is a company capable of increasing profits, but is in need of reconstructing their pricing scheme. With total revenues increasing over the last quarter, but profits falling, we have determined that their costs have increased more than their revenues. Although their key performance measure of utilization is important, the best measure for the company to measure their success should be focusing on keeping variable costs down. First, we analyze CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s profit/loss when implementing their sales drive . It is given that 600 units out of 1400 were rented for 8 weeks and the remaining 800 units for 4 weeks. So the Revenue was calculated as $256,000. Variable Cost is found to be $158,382. Depreciation is found to be $108,705. Hence it is found that with a sales drive CRU will suffer a loss of $11,087(Refer Appendix for Table 3 and calculation) Now we analyze CRUÃ¢â¬â¢s profit or loss without implementing sales drive. Here the Revenue is calculated as $144,000. The variable cost is found to be $67,878. The weekly Depreciation is calculated as $55,346. Here they will achieve a gain of $20,872(Refer Appendix for Table 4 and calculation). Hence it is not advisable to implement sales drive. Two concrete plans that help CRU is to Capture market for a longer period and to cut the shipping cost. We can take a look at the same without sales drive, but instead of CRU paying for shipping expenses, they pass this cost along to the customer. By doing this CRU will get a profit of $58,913 which is 2. 5 times of their profit without conducting sales drive. (Refer Appendix for calculation). As shown above, instead of posting a loss of ($11,708) in the first case, they have a profit of $58,913 in the second case when they are able to eliminate their shipping expense. We recommend management to eliminate their shipping expenses to increase their profit. By decreasing their variable costs, their contribution margin will increase. This will allow CRU to be able to cover their depreciation and operating expenses more efficiently and increase their bottom line. We found that the best way for CRU to decrease their variable costs is to cut out shipping expenses. Instead of paying for this expense, they should pass it on to the customer. As per the options suggested by vice president of sales two calculations were performed. First was by keeping inventory units same. It is found that to meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 520 extra units and 240 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 100 units for option C(Appendix Table 5). When profit of three options were calculated, Option A had the highest profit . So Option A can be considered as the best choice (Refer Appendix for Table 6 and calculation). Second Option was to keep flow rate the same. To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 3738 extra units and 1732 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 725 units for option (Appendix Table 7). When profit was calculated Option C had the highest profit. So it can be selected as the best choice(Refer Appendix for Table 8 and Calculation). Appendix Flow Chart illustrating CRUÃ¢â¬â¢S Operations Table 1 CRU Flow Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1000 1000 1000*. 7=700 1000*. 3+700*. 15=405 405 405 405 405 1000 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 1000 Flow Time 8000/1000=8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Utilization Achieved by CRU Last Year Utilization = (1000* 8) 14405= 8000 14405= 56 % Average Time Spent By a Unit in Each Buffer Last Year Table 2 Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order stored Order at supplies Status 41 Status 42 Status20 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Average Weekly Profit Revenue = 8,000* 30 = $240,000 Expense(Variable cost Rate) = 50*1,000(Shipping) +595*4 (pre-configuration) +405*150 (Repair)= $113,130 Profit (Contribution Margin) = 240,000 Ã¢â¬â 113,130= $126,870 Depreciation = (14,405 *1,000) 36 months (156 weeks)= $92,340 / week Operating Expense = 126,870 Ã¢â¬â 92,340=$34,530 / week Launching Sales Drive Case 1: Demand increases to 1400 units per week and flow time is same (with sales drive) Table 3 Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1400 1400 980 567 567 567 567 567 1400 Inventory 8000 1400*.. 5=700 2097 1400 697 567 264 697 2800 Flow Time 8000/1400=5. 71 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Given 600 units out of 1400 were rented for 8 weeks and rest 800 units for 4 weeks. So Revenue = 600*8*30 + 800* 4* 35 = $256,000 Variable Cost = 2*25*1400 + 4*980*. 85 + 150*567= $158,382 Depreciation = 16958*1000/156= $108,705 Profit = 256000-158382-108705= $-11,087 (LOSS) Case 2: Demand is 600 units per week and flow time is same (without sales drive) Table 4 Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 600 600 420 243 243 243 243 243 600 Inventory 600*8=4800 300 898 597 298 243 541 298 1200 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Revenue = 600*8*30= $144,000 Variable Cost = 2*25*600 + 4*420*. 85+ 150*243 = $67,878 Depreciation= 8634*1000/156= $55,346 Profit = 144000-67878-55346= $20782 (GAIN) Above results shows that the sales drive was not very effective. Average Weekly Profit By cutting Shipping Cost Revenue = 600*8*30 + 800* 4* 35 $256,000 Variable Cost = 0 (shipping costs) + 4*980*. 85 + 150*567 = $88,382 Depreciation = 16958*1000/156= $108,705 Profit = 256000-88382-108705= $58,913 (GAIN) Duration of Rental vs. Various Market Segments In order to solve this problem we will first find computers rented per week. Computers rented per week: Option A: . 6*1500+. 3*1000+. 1*600= 900+300+60= 1260 Option B: . 4*1500+. 4*1000+. 2*600= 600+400+120= 1120 Option C: . 2*1500+. 5*1000+. 25*600= 300+500+150= 950 CASE 1 Inventory size is same Table5 OptionA Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1260 1260 882 510 510 510 510 510 1260 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/1260=6. 35 0. 4 1. 7 1. 96 0. 98 0. 79 1. 77 0. 98 2 OptionB Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1120 11200 784 454 454 454 454 454 1120 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/1120=6. 35 0. 45 1. 91 2. 2 1. 1 0. 89 2 1. 1 2 Option C Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 950 950 665 385 385 385 385 385 950 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/950=8. 42 .53 2. 26 2. 6 1. 3 1. 05 2. 35 1. 3 2 Total number of inventory units: Option A: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+2520=14925 Option B: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+2240=14645 Option C: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+1900=14305 To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 520 extra units and 240 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 100 units for option C. Table Comparing Revenue, Variable cost, Depreciation, and Profit Table 6 Case 1 Revenue Variable cost Depreciation Profit Option A (900*40+300*30+60*25)*52wk =2418000 141998. 8 95673. 07692 2180328 Option B (600*40+400*30+120*25)*52 =2028000 126765. 6 93878. 20513 1807356 Option C (300*40+500*30+150*25)*52 =1599000 107511 91698. 71795 1399790 Therefore, Option A is the best for keeping inventory constant. CASE 2 Flow time is same Table 7 OptionA Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1260 1260 882 510 510 510 510 510 1260 Inventory 1260*8= 10080 630 1887 1260 627 510 1137 627 2520 Flow Time 8 .53 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Option B Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1120 1120 784 454 454 454 454 454 1120 Inventory 1120*8=8960 560 1677 1120 557 453 1011 557 2240 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Option C Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 950 950 665 385 385 385 385 385 950 Inventory 950*8=7600 475 1423 950 473 385 857 473 1900 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Total number of units: Option A: 10080+630+1887+1260+1137+627+2520= 18141 Option B: 8960+560+1677+1120+1011+557+2240= 16125 Option C: 7600+475+1423+950+857+473+1900= 13678 To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 3738 extra units and 1732 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 725 units for option C. Table Comparing Revenue, Variable cost, Depreciation, and Profit Table 8 Case 1 Revenue Variable cost Depreciation. Profit Option A (900*40+300*30+60*25)*52 =2418000 141998. 8 116288. 4615 2159713 Option B (600*40+400*30+120*25)*52 =2028000 126765. 6 103365. 3846 1797869 Option C (300*40+500*30+150*25)*52 =1599000 107511 87679. 48718 1403810 Therefore, Option C is the best for keeping flow time constant.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Lockout/Tagout It is a hot day in the middle of July, and there is a brother and sister impatiently waiting while their mother finishes packing for their trip to Disneyworld. This is their father's last day to work before his vacation starts. Their father is an air conditioning technician, and this morning he was called out to a movie theater to work on an air conditioning unit. This particular unit is located on the roof of the theater. It had been raining the day before; on the roof around the unit water is standing where he is going to have to work. In checking the unit out, he finds electrical problems that require him to shut the power off to the unit. He looks for the disconnect at the unit. Not finding one, he discovers that the only way to shut the power off is a breaker located downstairs inside the projection booth. He turns the breaker off and goes back on the roof to repair the unit. He does not know that someone has also connected one of the projectors to the same breaker. While he is working on the unit, the projectionist comes in and finds out that one of the projectors will not work, so he checks the breaker and finds it in the off position. He does not know that the air conditioning unit is also on that breaker. The projectionist turns the breaker on and at the same time, the technician working on the unit is standing in the water with his hands on the wiring. The electricity flows and electrocutes the technician, killing him. If this unit had been properly Lockedout/Taggedout, the brother and sister would be enjoying Disneyworld with their father. Instead, they are attending his funeral. Lockout/Tagout is essential in the workplace because it prevents unneeded shutdowns, saves money, and prevents loss of limb and life. Lockout/Tagout is essential in the workplace because it prevents unneeded shutdowns. These shutdowns are primarily the result of improper Lockout/Tagout procedures. In Lockout/Tagout: A Matter of Control, Susannah Zak Figura explains that in 1996 OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) reported that Lockout/Tagout was the third most frequently cited standard and that the average number of days lost from work was twenty-four per incident (27-9). In some cases, a portion of the building or factory could be destroyed by fire and cause the business to shutdown longer than was originally anticipated. According to Tommy Gilbreath, Associate Professor at The University of Texas at Tyler, There is nothing more unproductive than an injured worker (Personal interview). Often these companies wait until an accident occurs to implement the proper Lockout/Tagout procedures. Companies that have proper Lockout/Tagout programs in place have fewer accidents, lost work time, and fewer shut downs than companies that do not. Safety is no accident explains Frank C. De Felice, author of Electrical Construction and Maintenance (48). According to Occupational Hazards, AK Steel, a company with a bad safety record, hired a former OSHA compliance officer as vice president of safety and health to help the company comply with OSHA's rules. Since 1993, AK Steel, the nation's seventh largest steelmaker, has had a flash fire that killed one and injured two and an explosion that injured fourteen (Federal OSHA targets AK Steel for Fines and Further Inspections 25). OSHA issued more than 6,000 citations in 1996 alone for the violation of the Lockout/Tagout standard. Lockout/Tagout is a common sense approach to safety. Yet, many companies do not implement it until an accident injures or kills someone. Then it is a little late. Some companies have had Lockout/Tagout procedures in place long before the OSHA standard went into effect in 1990; because the policies were not written down, so metimes crucial steps were left undone (Figura 27-9). Performing Lockout/Tagout properly prevents losses arising from failure to control hazardous energy. Figura notes that in 1994 a 3,700-pound table broke loose from temporary slings and crushed a worker killing him. Because of this accident, OSHA cited the company for failure to control hazardous energy, i.e. gravity, and fined it $2.1 million. Under the Lockout/Tagout rule, hazardous energy must be isolated and rendered inoperative before work can begin. Not having the proper procedures in
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Crusades A paper Essay Pope Urban II had called the Christians to join him in a Holy War to reclaim the Holy Lands as an act of Christianity, but there were many activities that took place that werent characteristics of Christianity. The Crusades were a smokescreen for Popes The Crusades were the idea of Pope Urban II, a wise Frenchman.On November 18, 1095 AD, Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont.Nine days later,the Pope made a very important speech just outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand.In his speech, he asked the people to help the Christianseffort to restore peace to the East. The Crusades had originally been to help the Churches in the East, but the now it was to reclaim the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem from the Muslims. Pope Urban II stayed in France until September 1096 in hopes of providing leadership for the First Crusaders.Urban had originally hoped for the crusading army to be composed of mostly knights and other warriors, but his speech had already began spreading through out the west, and many people of different social classes started joining the crusading army. (Foss, Michael. pg.23) Because of this Urban lost all control of the army, which led to the slaughter of Jews in northern France.These poor people also caused strain on the armies supplies and discipline. They were never trainedand they were poor, so they couldnt bring anything and were poorly disciplined(Foss, Michael. pg.24).The entire crusading army had planned on reaching the city of Constantinople, but because of their lack of supplies and training the vast majority of them were slaughtered before they got there.The few troops that did reach Constantinople split up into two groups.One group tried to capture Nicaea, a key city that blocked the road of their supply routes.This group was unsuccessful.The other group was attacked near the city of Civetot in October
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A HISTORIOGRAPHY OF essays The tales of the Arthurian legend are some of the most popular from medieval times, and the reason for this is primarily due to their fabulous nature. In them are the exploits of heroes and the machinations of villains, the workings of sorcerers and the existence of magical objects. They embody the noble themes of chivalry and sacrifice, as well as those of revenge and evil. Action, violence, and sex are all included, and as shall be seen, there are many religious connotations as well. There are probably few people who are not familiar with the Quest for the Holy Grail, even if it is from exposure to the movie by Monty Python. The tales as most people know them, however, are the end result of centuries of change, both by the wandering minstrels and the serious authors of the medieval period. There exist numerous versions of each tale, and these versions are often contradictory. Roger Sherman Loomis was a noted medieval scholar, and a large part of the body of his work is an attempt to trace these tales to their origin. In going back to the roots of these tales, it is possible to see how and where variations took place. In Arthurian research, there are two main schools of thought. The first asserts that these tales have as their basis actual figures who lived in the towns and castles described in the tales and took part in the actions described, though obviously with some embellishment. The second school posits that these tales represent the evolution of even more ancient legends, the towns and castles (which are often factual) being inserted into the tales to lend them credibility. Loomis is a member of the latter. This historiography examines several of the works of Roger Sherman Loomis, which span the years from 1926 to 1964. In doing so, the nature of the origination of these tales will become evident, at least according to Loomis. First, however, some biographical information is in order. It may strike the read...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Downfall of the Tokugawa Shogunate - Thesis Example Shogun had decided to close Japan to the West. However, forced by various situations, Tokugawa Shogun was pushed to terminate the directive and open Japan to the West. This was a definite sign that Shogun was irresolute.2 However, besides that there were numerous other reasons behind the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogun. The ShogunÃ¢â¬â¢s power and influence was weakening. The power of Shogun over a large number of Daimyo had already declined by 1862. Commodore Perry of the United States pushed Shogun to allow Western powers into Japan.3 The Emperor requested the presence of the Shogun to Kyoto in 1863 and compelled him to agree to an imperial directive to expel the Western powers from Japan. After a year, the Shogun was again sent for Kyoto, where he was forced to consent that sooner or later the Emperor would integrate the daimyo with their realm.4 The daimyos of Echzaw, Choshu, and Satsuma were also admitted as Imperial counselors. In 1866, the Emperor ordered the Shogun to chast ise Choshu but the Shogun himself was overpowered by Choshu. From then on internal problems emerged which led to internal conflicts and uprisings and finally on the 9th of November 1867 Shogun decided to leave his post.5 This was the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the launching of Meiji Restoration and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s modernization. Throughout their regime Tokugawa Shoguns attempted to build and strengthen their own influence and authority. They exerted their greatest effort to keep the power in their hands. Unfortunately, they failed to do so. There were foreign intrusion and internal problems and conflicts which led to the gradual weakening of the ShogunsÃ¢â¬â¢ power. This brought about the eventual downfall. As argued by B.R. Chatterji, Ã¢â¬Å"Probably no contemporary European society was more civilized and polished. But it was not a living, growing organism. It had to change and its rules did not desire change.Ã¢â¬ 6 (Chaurasla 16) The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Relationship Between Firm Performance and Corporate Diversification - Term Paper Example It is the hope of this author that such an identification and understanding be helpful in further defining diversity and exposing the way in which further productivity can be had; thereby leading an organization to experience a benefit. Overview of Issues and Definitions: Although there are currently many definitions of what diversity ultimately means, for purposes of this brief analysis, it will be defined as the extent and level to which the organization/entity in question is able to effectively represent the realities of the environment within which it operates. Ultimately, such a definition implies that diversity in an of itself should be a means by which the organization seeks to reflect the racial, ethnic, and religious realities of both the market that it seeks to compete within and the population that it draws from stop in such a way, such a broad definition allows for this level of diversity not only impact upon the way in which healthcare provision is conducted within a par ticular region but also have far-reaching applications with regards to how individuals interact with and represent those populations with which they seek to provide healthcare solutions for. Diversity cannot and should not be understood as merely trying to fill slots within a corporate structure. Instead, qualified individuals that can both represent the needs of the firm/entity as well as promote further diversity are the ones that should be hired. Under no circumstances should a business entity, or any other entity for that matter, ever engage in seeking to hire specific race, gender, or ethnicity. Ultimately, such process, although oftentimes engaged in the desire to promote diversity is the polar opposite of what equality should mean for all applicants. Ultimately, a final Ã¢â¬Å"no goÃ¢â¬ that should be referenced is the fact that the firm should be perennially aware of the fact that its diversity is very much a part of its culture. In such a way, the extent and level of imp ortance or lack of importance that diversity espouses is ultimately reflected within the culture of the firm at each and every level. Literature Review: In seeking to trace an understanding of diversity, the first article that will be mentioned within this brief literature review is entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Shifting the Diversity ClimateÃ¢â¬ (Ringold & Feinstein, 2011). As such, Ringold and Feinsten point to the ways in which firms have recently made a marked shift towards seeking to promote greater degrees of diversity in the hopes that it could boost their success. Realizing that it is not possible for a firm to be profitable and exist and thrive in a market that is itself increasingly diverse, As such, the authors argue that firms have come to realize the means of capturing such a market was at least tangentially dependent upon the level of diversity they could represent (Hewlitt et al., 2013). A similar approach is made with respect to Anand and WintersÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008) analysis that so ught to integrate a further level of appreciation for the way in firms led the shift towards appreciating
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Militia in the War of 1812 - Essay Example In addition, many on the western front believed that Britain was involved with Native Americans in the attacks upon settlers Confrontation seemed inevitable, and coincident with a declaration of war was the fact that most of the political power resided in the South and the West; The same people who were anxious to go to war with Britain were also the ones whom the president needed to support him in what was, after all, the year of the presidential election. War was almost certain under these conditions. That does not mean, however, that the American states were prepared for war. Many authors agree that the constitution was fearful of creating a large standing army, and for this reason relied upon the citizens to form militias in times of crisis: " The actual standing army was tiny, with the Office of the Chief of Military History calculating that army at about 11,744 men. As a consequence of this small number, the defense of the united States was very dependant upon militia armies raised by the states. As many of the militias held by individual states were disorganized and chaotic, "Many states had to recreate their militia from scratch once war was declared in June 1812". Therefore, one of the reasons why different states had different militia was partly dependant upon the state of this army before 1812: where the militia was in good repair, the state could mobilize these units effectively; where they had fallen into disrepair, the 1812 militia was usually ill-trained and ill-equipped. How these militia were created and maintained was very much dependant upon the individual states. Many of them were opposed to these raised armies being taken away from their state of origin, as a proclamation by the Governor of Vermont in 1813 demonstrates: It appears, that the third brigadeof militia of this state, has Been ordered from our frontiers to the defence of a neighbouring Statewhereby an extensive section of our own frontier is left, In a measure, unprotected, and thegood citizens thereof are put In great jeopardy (Chittenden, 1813) The federal governments were unwilling to put large numbers of their men at the disposal of the National government, and especially, they did not want to see their troops moved out of their province in order to defend another state. There were other reasons why federal states might be unwilling to put up large militias. While many of the Western states wanted the war, states such as New England actually sided with England, and "Massachusetts Governor Caleb Strong even attempted secret negotiations with England with a planfor New England to secede from the Union" (Lutins, 2007). So the second reason for differences in the militia is the differences in support (or lack thereof) for the war. Both of these reasons were also interacting with the great problem which the United States had with federal governments, which is the reluctance of the States to grant power